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What are the meanings of instructions such as 'name', 'give', 'describe', 'reasons', 'discuss' etc. on the question paper?

'Give' and 'name' generally mean to use a phrase or sometimes even a single word, though students are advised to use a phrase wherever possible. 'Describe' generally requires sentences to be used, and in addition to naming the answer students should go on to write a sentence or two to show their understanding of the answer. 'Give reasons', in general, means to compare with alternatives. 'Discuss' requires students to give both sides of an argument and then to provide their conclusion.

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