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How is the Table 2 mark scheme applied to an optional part c answer?

An example of the Table 2 mark scheme applied to an optional part c question using a response written by a candidate is given below:


Q2c: ‘The “Two-Nation” Theory was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s main contribution to the development of the Pakistan Movement during the nineteenth century.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the Muslim leaders and tirelessly worked for the betterment of Muslim people. He made the Two Nation Theory in his political reforms. After the uprising of 1857 he observed that some Hindu groups were working primarily for their own interests. He saw them as having a different culture, religion and language from Muslims, making it impossible for the two to work or live together (a (simple) explanation on one side of the issue L3/7 marks). Further, the Urdu-Hindi controversy started in which Hindu groups demanded Hindi to be the official language. This was against the culture and tradition of Muslims that stated Muslims and Hindus to be two different kinds of people needing to be separate from each other (this (simple) explanation has been developed, L3/8 marks)

Also, to improve relations with the British and Muslims, he wrote ‘Loyal Mohammadans of India’ in which he gave the names of Muslims who were loyal to the British during the uprising and also mentioned their actions. So, he resented the idea that Muslim groups were the reason for the war and said that they did not take part in the war as a whole nation. So, relations improved and the negative image of Muslim people in the minds of the British was removed and they could be looked on fairly (a (simple) explanation on the other side of the issue L4/10 marks). He also wrote ‘The Causes of the Indian Revolt’ in which he pointed out the main reasons for the uprising of 1857 e.g. mismanagement of Indian sepoys and harsh administrative policies. Further, he mentioned that the Hindus were also involved in the war. This pamphlet was given to all British officers on high posts. It improved Muslim- British relations and thus the British were ready to make concessions to them e.g. Simla Deputation 1906 and the Partition of Bengal 1905 (this (simple) explanation about the impact of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s writings has been, whilst keeping the focus on the question, L4/11).

He also introduced Western education among Muslims. A number of schools and colleges were made by him for Muslim study e.g. Victoria School. Furthermore, the Anglo-Oriental College was made that became the centre of Muslim study. Many scientific writings were translated from English to Urdu by him and he wrote Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq to tell Muslims about advantages of modern education for their modernisation and economic well-being (if the candidate had linked this to political education, this would have been L4/12). This made their number increase in the civil service and they came to know about the Hindu policy of cooperation with the British. This made them more politically aware (an additional (simple) explanation linking education to political thought, L4/12).

I think the Two Nation Theory was the main contribution as it formed the foundation of the Pakistan Movement and many people like Quaid-e-Azam and Allama Iqbal supported it as they later came to know about the Hindus plans. Allama Iqbal supported it in his Allahabad Address while Quaid in his Lahore Resolution 1940 (this gives an opinion/preference which is supported by simple additional reasoning based upon the relevant contextual knowledge already given earlier in the answer without repeating arguments made previously L5/13). His being so far ahead in thinking with this theory led to Sir Syed being called ‘The Father of the Ideology of Pakistan (this opinion/preference is developed in the final sentence without repetition of the earlier argument therefore, this answer is credited L5/14 marks).

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