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FAQs for O level Pakistan Studies (2059)

Content:

Why has the mark scheme changed?

Cambridge mark schemes undergo regular review. As part of this process the 2059/01, 0448/01 mark scheme has been updated to reflect current best practice bringing it into line with other history qualifications at an equivalent level. It has also been streamlined to make it clearer for all users. The changes also make it easier to recognise explanation in work that is presented. It does not represent a change in the standard and does not make it harder for candidates to achieve marks.

How has the mark scheme changed?

• It has been simplified to make it easier for centres and candidates to understand
• The generic part of the mark scheme which applies to Q1(c) and Q2-5(b) has been moved into Table 1 and the generic part of the mark scheme which applies to Q2-5(c) can be found in Table 2.
• Changes to the distribution of marks in some of the bands in the levels include:
o the removal of overlapping marks
o the formal recognition of developed explanations that are already given by many candidates.
o L3 in Q1d now starts at 4 marks.
o There are now 2 marks available in L5 for evaluation in optional Part c questions.

What stays the same in the mark scheme?

  • There are no changes to the overall number of marks available for each question or question part
  • Candidates should continue to look at both sides of an answer for Level 4 in 10 mark or 14 mark questions
  • Explanation and developed explanation are explicitly signposted in Table 2. Though they may be labelled differently, as explanation and developed explanation, the marks allocated for the explanation of factors remain unchanged
  • To achieve marks for evaluation, candidates must continue to reflect on an answer that addresses both sides of the issue before giving an opinion that is supported by their argument
  • The marking layout for Q1b. Candidates must continue to reference the source to achieve marks. L1 requires the identification of any appropriate surface feature from the source. L2 requires one or more unsupported valid inferences. L3 asks for one or more inferences supported by detail from the source. The fifth mark can be achieved either through two supported inferences, or through one supported inference set in its appropriate context.

Will these changes to the mark scheme affect candidates?

No, they will not. Question types have not changed. Requirements for achieving marks have not changed.

Will these changes to the mark scheme affect how I deliver the course?

No, it should not. The assessment objectives that you use to prepare your learners remain unchanged. The style of questions remains unchanged.

What is a Level 2 identify/describe answer and what does it look like?

Typically, an identify answer states a relevant factor but does not say why it is so, and a describe answer is generally about the topic seen in the question, but not about the question itself. Each identification/description is awarded one mark within that level.  Comments on marks awarded are in red italics.

  • For Q1c, the L2 range of marks for answers that identify/ describe is 2-4 marks (Table 1).
  • For optional part c questions, the L2 range of marks for answers that identify/ describe is 3-6 marks (Table 2).

Two examples are given below one for Q1c (2-4 marks) and another for Q2c (3-6 marks), both examples use responses written by candidates:

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 Q1c: Explain the impact of railways on the lives of Indian people in the nineteenth century.

When the British introduced railways in the nineteenth century it made Indian people’s lives easier. It was a much more efficient transport. It meant more goods could be transported easily (L2). The railways made some Indian people scared (L2). It was beneficial for the army because they could go from one place to another. This became their main transport as well. Murders have also happened in these railways.        

3 marks                                                                                                                                          
Two relevant points of identification/description are credited: easier transport and that the railways scared some Indian people. The point made on the army relates to the British and the murders are not in the correct time period.
Q2c: ‘The “Two-Nation” Theory was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s main contribution to the development of the Pakistan Movement during the nineteenth century.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
I agree with the statement that the Two Nation Theory was the plan of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He was the first person who gave this idea. To make a different nation where Islam will be the only religion to be followed and many people could live there freely (L2).                                                                               

3 marks
One relevant point of description is credited: where people could live freely as Muslims.

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For Q1d the L2 range of marks for answers that identify/describe is 2-3 marks. An example using a response written by a candidate is given below:

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Q1d: To what extent were the different aims of Indian groups in 1857 the main reason why the War of Independence was short-lived? Explain your answer.

Yes, it was the different aims that were the main reason why the War of Independence was short lived. Also, it was a spur of the moment uprising, different groups were taken by surprise and so had no time to plan. (L2).                                                                                                                                                

2 marks

One relevant point of identification/description as to why the war was short-lived is credited; that the Indians did not have time to plan.

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What is an explanation and what does it look like?

An explanation sees knowledge and understanding appropriately selected and used to answer the question. Each explanation is awarded one mark within that level.    Comments on marks awarded are in red italics

  • For Q1c and optional part b questions the L3 range of marks for answers that give explanation(s) is 5-7 marks (Table 1).
  • For Q1d the L3 range of marks for answers that give a one-sided explanation is 4-6 marks. The L4 range of marks for answers that give explanation(s) of each side is 7-9 marks.
  • For optional part c questions, the L3 range of marks for answers that give a one-sided explanation is 7-9 marks. The L4 range of marks for answers that give explanation(s) of each side is 10-12 marks (Table 2).
  • The descriptors within the mark scheme for L3/L4 for Q1d and optional part c questions are identical.

Two examples of an explanation are given below, one for Q3b (5-7 marks) and another for Q3c (L3/7-9 marks), both examples use responses written by candidates:

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Q3b Explain why there were three Round Table Conferences between 1930 and 1932.

As the Simon Commission was sent to India in 1927 to research, accordingly the Round Table Conferences were held so British could listen to the people of India, all the political parties could be present and the problems of India can be discussed as new reforms were to come (L3).

5 marks                                                                                                                                      

Several points were identified/described, one (simple) explanation of the purpose of the Round Table Conferences is credited.

Q3c: To what extent was Direct Action Day more significant in the creation of Pakistan than other key events of the 1940s? Explain your answer.

Direct Action Day was organised by Jinnah on 16th August 1946. It was intended to be a peaceful demonstration to portray Muslim strength to the British so they may be prevented from handing over India to Congress (L3).                 

7 marks

One (simple) explanation of the significance of Direct Action Day in the creation of Pakistan is credited.

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What is a developed explanation and what does it look like?

A developed explanation sees knowledge and understanding appropriately selected and used to answer the question, with added detail and depth of understanding to expand on that explanation while maintaining a focus on the question. Comments on marks awarded are in red italics.

  • For Q1d the L3 range of marks for answers that give a one-sided explanation is 4-6 marks. The L4 range of marks for answers that give explanation(s) of each side is 7-9 marks.
  • For Q1c and optional part b questions the L3 range of marks for answers that give explanation(s) is 5-7 marks (Table 1).
  • For optional part c questions, the L3 range of marks for answers that give a one-sided explanation is 7-9 marks. The L4 range of marks for answers that give explanation(s) of each side is 10-12 marks (Table 2).
  • The descriptors within the mark scheme for L3/L4 for Q1d and optional part c questions are identical.

Two examples of developed explanation are given below, one for Q3b (L3/5-7 marks) and another for Q3c (L3/7-9 marks, both examples use responses written by candidates:

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Q3b Explain why there were three Round Table Conferences between 1930 and 1932.

The first Round Table Conference was held because the 1909 and 1919 reforms had failed to win support and the British did not know what to do. The rejection of the Simon Commission made them realise that they needed to talk to the parties in India (L3 (simple) explanation). Hindu and Muslim groups had parted ways and their constant conflict made the British realise that talks needed to be held. Hence the first Round Table Conference was held (L3 developed explanation). Additionally, as Congress was not present at the First Round Table Conference and as it was the biggest party, no decisions could be made final so a second Round Table Conference was called. (L3 (simple) explanation).

7 marks

One developed explanation of the initial simple explanation about the about the purpose of the Round Table Conferences is credited followed by a second simple explanation which is also credited. Maximum marks were achieved by this response.

Q3c: To what extent was Direct Action Day more significant in the creation of Pakistan than other key events of the 1940s? Explain your answer.

Direct Action Day was organised by Jinnah on 16th August 1946. It was intended to be a peaceful demonstration to portray Muslim strength to the British so they may be prevented from handing over India to Congress (L3 (simple) explanation). As the protest got violent in Calcutta where nearly 4000 people died the British feared civil war if Congress ruled everyone and so they thought again making the day a very significant event in the emergence of Pakistan. (L3 developed explanation).

8 marks 

One developed explanation of the (simple) explanation about the significance of Direct Action Day in the creation of Pakistan is credited.

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What is an evaluation/judgement and what does this look like?

An evaluation/judgement is a ‘clinching’ argument which builds on a statement of preference or an assertion/ opinion which is supported/justified with some additional reasoning based on the evidence (relevant and accurate contextual knowledge) already provided in the answer. An evaluation/judgement is not a statement of preference or a straightforward assertion only, or a repetition of what has already been written or stated.

In Q1d L5, there is one mark available for an explanation at the top of Level 4 with an evaluation/judgement supported by relevant and accurate contextual knowledge [10 marks]. To gain the evaluation mark a response must have already obtained 9 marks by producing an argument addressing both sides of the issue in answer to the question, and then give an opinion/preference that clearly addresses the question and is supported by some additional reasoning based on evidence already given in their response. Comments on marks awarded are in red italics.

In the optional Q2-5c there are now up to two marks available in L5. This is described in Table 2 of the mark scheme. To gain the evaluation mark(s) a response must have already obtained 12 marks by producing an argument addressing both sides of the issue in answer to the question, and then give an opinion/preference that clearly addresses the question and is supported by some additional reasoning based on evidence already given in their response. An answer will be awarded L5 13 marks if the additional reasoning in the evaluation/judgement supporting the opinion/preference is simple and 14 marks if this reasoning is more developed. Comments on marks awarded are in red italics.

An example of a (simple) evaluation/judgement for an optional part c question using a response written by a candidate is given below:

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Q2c: ‘The “Two-Nation” Theory was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s main contribution to the development of the Pakistan Movement during the nineteenth century.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

[this candidate obtained 12 marks for their explanation that preceded this evaluation]

To conclude, it can be said that Sir Syed’s ‘Two Nation Theory’ was his most important contribution as it became the policy of the League during the Pakistan Movement. Therefore, Sir Syed was known as ‘the Father of the ideology of Pakistan’ (L5).

13 marks

Having already reached the top of L4, this response gave a (simple) evaluation/judgement about the contribution of the ‘Two Nation Theory’. The opinion/preference given was supported by some simple additional reasoning based upon the relevant contextual knowledge already given in the main body of the answer and did not repeat arguments made previously. Therefore one of the available evaluation/judgement marks, L5/13 is credited in this response.

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An example of a developed evaluation/judgement for an optional part c question using a response written by a candidate is given below:

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Q3c: To what extent was Direct Action Day more significant in the creation of Pakistan than other key events of the 1940s? Explain your answer.

Thus, it can be concluded that the efforts of Muslims in Direct Action Day were extremely significant to the emergence of Pakistan as it pressurised and forced the British to an extent that they had no choice but to partition India to avoid Civil War (L5). Muslim groups had now shown their numerical strength and unity in action as well as at the ballot box during the 1945/6 elections (L5).

14 marks

Having already reached the top of L4, this response gave a developed evaluation/judgement about the significance of Direct Action Day in the creation of Pakistan. The opinion/preference given was supported by simple additional reasoning based upon the relevant contextual knowledge already given in the main body of the answer which was then developed in the final sentence without repeating arguments made previously. Therefore, both the available evaluation/judgement marks, L5/14 are credited in this response.

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How is the Table 2 mark scheme applied to an optional part c answer?

An example of the Table 2 mark scheme applied to an optional part c question using a response written by a candidate is given below:

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Q2c: ‘The “Two-Nation” Theory was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s main contribution to the development of the Pakistan Movement during the nineteenth century.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the Muslim leaders and tirelessly worked for the betterment of Muslim people. He made the Two Nation Theory in his political reforms. After the uprising of 1857 he observed that some Hindu groups were working primarily for their own interests. He saw them as having a different culture, religion and language from Muslims, making it impossible for the two to work or live together (a (simple) explanation on one side of the issue L3/7 marks). Further, the Urdu-Hindi controversy started in which Hindu groups demanded Hindi to be the official language. This was against the culture and tradition of Muslims that stated Muslims and Hindus to be two different kinds of people needing to be separate from each other (this (simple) explanation has been developed, L3/8 marks)

Also, to improve relations with the British and Muslims, he wrote ‘Loyal Mohammadans of India’ in which he gave the names of Muslims who were loyal to the British during the uprising and also mentioned their actions. So, he resented the idea that Muslim groups were the reason for the war and said that they did not take part in the war as a whole nation. So, relations improved and the negative image of Muslim people in the minds of the British was removed and they could be looked on fairly (a (simple) explanation on the other side of the issue L4/10 marks). He also wrote ‘The Causes of the Indian Revolt’ in which he pointed out the main reasons for the uprising of 1857 e.g. mismanagement of Indian sepoys and harsh administrative policies. Further, he mentioned that the Hindus were also involved in the war. This pamphlet was given to all British officers on high posts. It improved Muslim- British relations and thus the British were ready to make concessions to them e.g. Simla Deputation 1906 and the Partition of Bengal 1905 (this (simple) explanation about the impact of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s writings has been, whilst keeping the focus on the question, L4/11).

He also introduced Western education among Muslims. A number of schools and colleges were made by him for Muslim study e.g. Victoria School. Furthermore, the Anglo-Oriental College was made that became the centre of Muslim study. Many scientific writings were translated from English to Urdu by him and he wrote Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq to tell Muslims about advantages of modern education for their modernisation and economic well-being (if the candidate had linked this to political education, this would have been L4/12). This made their number increase in the civil service and they came to know about the Hindu policy of cooperation with the British. This made them more politically aware (an additional (simple) explanation linking education to political thought, L4/12).

I think the Two Nation Theory was the main contribution as it formed the foundation of the Pakistan Movement and many people like Quaid-e-Azam and Allama Iqbal supported it as they later came to know about the Hindus plans. Allama Iqbal supported it in his Allahabad Address while Quaid in his Lahore Resolution 1940 (this gives an opinion/preference which is supported by simple additional reasoning based upon the relevant contextual knowledge already given earlier in the answer without repeating arguments made previously L5/13). His being so far ahead in thinking with this theory led to Sir Syed being called ‘The Father of the Ideology of Pakistan (this opinion/preference is developed in the final sentence without repetition of the earlier argument therefore, this answer is credited L5/14 marks).

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Will there be any further guidance provided on the mark scheme?

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